Ultra-processed food consumption and adult diabetes risk: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis

Sajjad Moradi, Mohammad Ali Hojjati Kermani, Reza Bagheri, Hamed Mohammadi, Ahmad Jayedi, Melissa M. Lane, Omid Asbaghi, Sanaz Mehrabani*, Katsuhiko Suzuki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

(1) Background: Recent individual studies have demonstrated that consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF) may be related to type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to synthe-size the results from these individual studies by conducting an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies evaluating the association between UPF consumption and the risk of T2DM. (2) Methods: A systematic search was conducted using ISI Web of Science, PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus electronic databases from inception up to August 2021. Data were extracted from five studies (one cross-sectional study and four cohort studies, totaling 230,526 adults from four different countries). Risk ratios (RR) of pooled results were estimated using a random-effects model. (3) Results: Our results revealed that higher UPF consumption was significantly associated with an increased risk of T2DM (RR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.36, 2.22; I2 = 68.9%; p < 0.001; n = 5). Linear dose-response analysis indicated that each 10% increase in UPF consumption (kcal/d) was associated with a 15% higher risk of T2DM (RR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.26; I2 = 86.0%; p < 0.001; n = 5) among adults. Non-linear dose-response analysis demonstrated a positive linear association between UPF consumption and T2DM (pnonlinearity = 0.13, pdose-response < 0.001; n = 5) among adults. (4) Conclusions: A higher intake of UPF was significantly associated with an increased risk of T2DM. However, underlying mechanisms remain unknown and future experimental studies are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4410
JournalNutrients
Volume13
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec

Keywords

  • Diabetes risk
  • Meta-analysis
  • Ultra-processed food

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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