Ultra‐processed food consumption and adult mortality risk: A systematic review and dose–response meta‐analysis of 207,291 participants

Wanich Suksatan, Sajjad Moradi*, Fatemeh Naeini, Reza Bagheri, Hamed Mohammadi, Sepide Talebi, Sanaz Mehrabani, Mohammad Ali Hojjati Kermani, Katsuhiko Suzuki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We performed a systematic review and dose–response meta‐analysis of observational studies assessing the association between UPF consumption and adult mortality risk. A systematic search was conducted using ISI Web of Science, PubMed/MEDLINE, and Scopus electronic data-bases from inception to August 2021. Data were extracted from seven cohort studies (totaling 207,291 adults from four countries). Using a random‐effects model, hazard ratios (HR) of pooled outcomes were estimated. Our results showed that UPF consumption was related to an enhanced risk of all‐cause mortality (HR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.30; I2 = 21.9%; p < 0.001), cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)‐cause mortality (HR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.37, 1.63; I2 = 0.0%; p < 0.001), and heart‐cause mortality (HR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.50, 1.85; I2 = 0.0%; p = 0.022), but not cancer‐cause mortality. Furthermore, our findings revealed that each 10% increase in UPF consumption in daily calorie intake was associated with a 15% higher risk of all‐cause mortality (OR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.21; I2 = 0.0%; p < 0.001). The dose–response analysis revealed a positive linear association between UPF consumption and all-cause mortality (Pnonlinearity = 0.879, Pdose–response = p < 0.001), CVDs‐cause mortality (Pnonlinearity = 0.868, Pdose–response = p < 0.001), and heart‐cause mortality (Pnonlinearity = 0.774, Pdose–response = p < 0.001). It seems that higher consumption of UPF is significantly associated with an enhanced risk of adult mortality. Despite this, further experimental studies are necessary to draw a more definite conclusion.

Original languageEnglish
Article number174
JournalNutrients
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jan 1

Keywords

  • Dose–response
  • Meta‐analysis
  • Mortality risk
  • Systematic review
  • Ultra‐processed food

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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