Versatile APD-based PET modules for high resolution, fast medical imaging

Jun Kataoka, H. Matsuda, M. Yoshino, T. Miura, F. Nishikido, M. Koizumi, T. Tanaka, H. Ikeda, Y. Ishikawa, N. Kawabata, Y. Matsunaga, S. Kishimoto, H. Kubo

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Abstract

    We report on the development of versatile APD-based PET modules with time-of-flight capability. The module consists of a LYSO matrix optically coupled with a position-sensitive avalanche photodiode (APD) array, and front-end circuits (FEC) directly connected to the rear-end of the APD package. Each APD device has a monolithic 16x16 (or 8x8) pixel structure with an active area of 1.0 (or 4.0) mm2 for each pixel. Time resolutions of 155 ps and 214 ps (FWHM) were obtained for 1.0 mm2 and 4.0 mm2 APD pixels, respectively, measured by the direct detection of 10 keV X-rays. The FEC carries two identical analog ASICs specifically designed for the APDs in TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Each ASIC consists of 32-channel charge-sensitive amplifiers, band-pass filters, differentiators, pulse-height and timing discriminators, and two-channel time-to-amplitude converters. The noise characteristic of the ASIC, mounted in a low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) package, is 560 +30 e-/pF with an electric timing resolution of 484 ps (rms). The overall dimension of the module (including APD-array, LYSO matrix and FEC) is 30x30x80 mm3. The variation of signal amplitude was less than 20% among all pixels. The average energy resolutions of 11.7 ± 0.7 % and 13.7 ± 1.1 % were obtained for 662 keV gamma-rays, measured with 8x8 and 16x16 arrays, respectively. An attainable spatial resolution is < 0.8mm (FWHM) for 16x16 array in a reconstructed image. These results suggest the APD-based PET module can be a promising device for future applications, especially for high resolution MRI- and TOF-PET.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationIEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record
    Pages3542-3545
    Number of pages4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2009
    Event2009 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, NSS/MIC 2009 - Orlando, FL
    Duration: 2009 Oct 252009 Oct 31

    Other

    Other2009 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, NSS/MIC 2009
    CityOrlando, FL
    Period09/10/2509/10/31

    Fingerprint

    Avalanches
    Diagnostic Imaging
    avalanches
    photodiodes
    modules
    high resolution
    application specific integrated circuits
    pixels
    pamidronate
    time measurement
    differentiators
    Equipment and Supplies
    discriminators
    Gamma Rays
    Ceramics
    pulse amplitude
    matrices
    bandpass filters
    converters
    Pulse

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Radiation
    • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
    • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

    Cite this

    Kataoka, J., Matsuda, H., Yoshino, M., Miura, T., Nishikido, F., Koizumi, M., ... Kubo, H. (2009). Versatile APD-based PET modules for high resolution, fast medical imaging. In IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (pp. 3542-3545). [5401811] https://doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2009.5401811

    Versatile APD-based PET modules for high resolution, fast medical imaging. / Kataoka, Jun; Matsuda, H.; Yoshino, M.; Miura, T.; Nishikido, F.; Koizumi, M.; Tanaka, T.; Ikeda, H.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kawabata, N.; Matsunaga, Y.; Kishimoto, S.; Kubo, H.

    IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record. 2009. p. 3542-3545 5401811.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    Kataoka, J, Matsuda, H, Yoshino, M, Miura, T, Nishikido, F, Koizumi, M, Tanaka, T, Ikeda, H, Ishikawa, Y, Kawabata, N, Matsunaga, Y, Kishimoto, S & Kubo, H 2009, Versatile APD-based PET modules for high resolution, fast medical imaging. in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record., 5401811, pp. 3542-3545, 2009 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, NSS/MIC 2009, Orlando, FL, 09/10/25. https://doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2009.5401811
    Kataoka J, Matsuda H, Yoshino M, Miura T, Nishikido F, Koizumi M et al. Versatile APD-based PET modules for high resolution, fast medical imaging. In IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record. 2009. p. 3542-3545. 5401811 https://doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2009.5401811
    Kataoka, Jun ; Matsuda, H. ; Yoshino, M. ; Miura, T. ; Nishikido, F. ; Koizumi, M. ; Tanaka, T. ; Ikeda, H. ; Ishikawa, Y. ; Kawabata, N. ; Matsunaga, Y. ; Kishimoto, S. ; Kubo, H. / Versatile APD-based PET modules for high resolution, fast medical imaging. IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record. 2009. pp. 3542-3545
    @inproceedings{e36513fa3ab84782b9d9a414173f2f88,
    title = "Versatile APD-based PET modules for high resolution, fast medical imaging",
    abstract = "We report on the development of versatile APD-based PET modules with time-of-flight capability. The module consists of a LYSO matrix optically coupled with a position-sensitive avalanche photodiode (APD) array, and front-end circuits (FEC) directly connected to the rear-end of the APD package. Each APD device has a monolithic 16x16 (or 8x8) pixel structure with an active area of 1.0 (or 4.0) mm2 for each pixel. Time resolutions of 155 ps and 214 ps (FWHM) were obtained for 1.0 mm2 and 4.0 mm2 APD pixels, respectively, measured by the direct detection of 10 keV X-rays. The FEC carries two identical analog ASICs specifically designed for the APDs in TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Each ASIC consists of 32-channel charge-sensitive amplifiers, band-pass filters, differentiators, pulse-height and timing discriminators, and two-channel time-to-amplitude converters. The noise characteristic of the ASIC, mounted in a low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) package, is 560 +30 e-/pF with an electric timing resolution of 484 ps (rms). The overall dimension of the module (including APD-array, LYSO matrix and FEC) is 30x30x80 mm3. The variation of signal amplitude was less than 20{\%} among all pixels. The average energy resolutions of 11.7 ± 0.7 {\%} and 13.7 ± 1.1 {\%} were obtained for 662 keV gamma-rays, measured with 8x8 and 16x16 arrays, respectively. An attainable spatial resolution is < 0.8mm (FWHM) for 16x16 array in a reconstructed image. These results suggest the APD-based PET module can be a promising device for future applications, especially for high resolution MRI- and TOF-PET.",
    author = "Jun Kataoka and H. Matsuda and M. Yoshino and T. Miura and F. Nishikido and M. Koizumi and T. Tanaka and H. Ikeda and Y. Ishikawa and N. Kawabata and Y. Matsunaga and S. Kishimoto and H. Kubo",
    year = "2009",
    doi = "10.1109/NSSMIC.2009.5401811",
    language = "English",
    isbn = "9781424439621",
    pages = "3542--3545",
    booktitle = "IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record",

    }

    TY - GEN

    T1 - Versatile APD-based PET modules for high resolution, fast medical imaging

    AU - Kataoka, Jun

    AU - Matsuda, H.

    AU - Yoshino, M.

    AU - Miura, T.

    AU - Nishikido, F.

    AU - Koizumi, M.

    AU - Tanaka, T.

    AU - Ikeda, H.

    AU - Ishikawa, Y.

    AU - Kawabata, N.

    AU - Matsunaga, Y.

    AU - Kishimoto, S.

    AU - Kubo, H.

    PY - 2009

    Y1 - 2009

    N2 - We report on the development of versatile APD-based PET modules with time-of-flight capability. The module consists of a LYSO matrix optically coupled with a position-sensitive avalanche photodiode (APD) array, and front-end circuits (FEC) directly connected to the rear-end of the APD package. Each APD device has a monolithic 16x16 (or 8x8) pixel structure with an active area of 1.0 (or 4.0) mm2 for each pixel. Time resolutions of 155 ps and 214 ps (FWHM) were obtained for 1.0 mm2 and 4.0 mm2 APD pixels, respectively, measured by the direct detection of 10 keV X-rays. The FEC carries two identical analog ASICs specifically designed for the APDs in TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Each ASIC consists of 32-channel charge-sensitive amplifiers, band-pass filters, differentiators, pulse-height and timing discriminators, and two-channel time-to-amplitude converters. The noise characteristic of the ASIC, mounted in a low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) package, is 560 +30 e-/pF with an electric timing resolution of 484 ps (rms). The overall dimension of the module (including APD-array, LYSO matrix and FEC) is 30x30x80 mm3. The variation of signal amplitude was less than 20% among all pixels. The average energy resolutions of 11.7 ± 0.7 % and 13.7 ± 1.1 % were obtained for 662 keV gamma-rays, measured with 8x8 and 16x16 arrays, respectively. An attainable spatial resolution is < 0.8mm (FWHM) for 16x16 array in a reconstructed image. These results suggest the APD-based PET module can be a promising device for future applications, especially for high resolution MRI- and TOF-PET.

    AB - We report on the development of versatile APD-based PET modules with time-of-flight capability. The module consists of a LYSO matrix optically coupled with a position-sensitive avalanche photodiode (APD) array, and front-end circuits (FEC) directly connected to the rear-end of the APD package. Each APD device has a monolithic 16x16 (or 8x8) pixel structure with an active area of 1.0 (or 4.0) mm2 for each pixel. Time resolutions of 155 ps and 214 ps (FWHM) were obtained for 1.0 mm2 and 4.0 mm2 APD pixels, respectively, measured by the direct detection of 10 keV X-rays. The FEC carries two identical analog ASICs specifically designed for the APDs in TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Each ASIC consists of 32-channel charge-sensitive amplifiers, band-pass filters, differentiators, pulse-height and timing discriminators, and two-channel time-to-amplitude converters. The noise characteristic of the ASIC, mounted in a low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) package, is 560 +30 e-/pF with an electric timing resolution of 484 ps (rms). The overall dimension of the module (including APD-array, LYSO matrix and FEC) is 30x30x80 mm3. The variation of signal amplitude was less than 20% among all pixels. The average energy resolutions of 11.7 ± 0.7 % and 13.7 ± 1.1 % were obtained for 662 keV gamma-rays, measured with 8x8 and 16x16 arrays, respectively. An attainable spatial resolution is < 0.8mm (FWHM) for 16x16 array in a reconstructed image. These results suggest the APD-based PET module can be a promising device for future applications, especially for high resolution MRI- and TOF-PET.

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77951195184&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77951195184&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1109/NSSMIC.2009.5401811

    DO - 10.1109/NSSMIC.2009.5401811

    M3 - Conference contribution

    SN - 9781424439621

    SP - 3542

    EP - 3545

    BT - IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record

    ER -