Xanthine oxidoreductase activity in marathon runners: potential implications for marathon-induced acute kidney injury

Keisei Kosaki, Shota Kumamoto, Katsuyuki Tokinoya, Yasuko Yoshida, Takeshi Sugaya, Takayo Murase, Seigo Akari, Takashi Nakamura, Yoshiharu Nabekura, Kazuhiro Takekoshi, Seiji Maeda*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Excess activation of circulating xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) may contribute to the pathogenesis of widespread remote organ injury, including kidney injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute impact of marathon running on plasma XOR activity and to examine whether plasma XOR activity is associated with marathon-induced elevations in biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI). Twenty-three young men (aged 20–25 yr) who participated in the 38th Tsukuba Marathon were included. Blood and urine samples were collected before, immediately, 2 h (only blood sample), and 24 h after a full marathon run. Plasma XOR activity was evaluated using a highly sensitive assay utilizing a combination of [13C215N2] xanthine and liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The levels of several AKI biomarkers, such as serum creatinine and urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) were measured in each participant. Marathon running caused a transient elevation in plasma XOR activity and levels of purine degradation products (hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid) as well as serum creatinine, urinary albumin, and urinary L-FABP levels. Immediately after the marathon, individual relative changes in plasma XOR activity were independently correlated with corresponding changes in serum creatinine and urinary L-FABP levels. In addition, the magnitude of marathon-induced elevation in plasma XOR activity and levels of purine degradation products were higher in individuals who developed AKI. These findings collectively suggest that marathon running substantially influences the purine metabolism pathway including XOR activity. Moreover, activated circulating XOR can be partly associated with elevated biomarkers of AKI after marathon running. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study is the first to show marathon running transiently increases plasma XOR activity and levels of purine degradation products (hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid), and further to demonstrate that activated plasma XOR may contribute to marathon-induced elevations in biomarkers of AKI. These findings significantly extend our prior knowledge of the purine metabolic pathway and several AKI biomarkers under strenuous exercise conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
Volume133
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jul

Keywords

  • kidney damage
  • liver-type fatty acid-binding protein
  • marathon running
  • purine metabolism
  • strenuous exercise

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

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