This paper describes outdoor localization for a mobile robot using a laser scanner and a three-dimensional (3D) voxel map that is based on outdoor point clouds. A mobile mapping system (MMS) measures outdoor 3D point clouds easily and precisely. The complete 6D state of a mobile robot is estimated by combining dead reckoning and the 3D voxel map. The 2D position and orientation are extended to 3D by using the 3D voxel map and by assuming that the mobile robot remains in continuous contact with the road surface. Our approach applies a particle filter to correct position errors in the laser measurement model for a 3D point cloud space. Field experiments were performed to evaluate the accuracy of our proposed method. Our results confirmed that it is possible to achieve a localization precision of 0.2 m (RMS) using our proposed method.