Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) are two of the most important repair enzymes that are involved in the base excision repair processes to eliminate oxidative damage from mammalian DNA, which accumulates with aging. Red and white skeletal muscle fibers have very different antioxidant enzyme activities and resistance to oxidative stress. In this paper, we demonstrate that the activity of OGG1 is significantly higher in the red type of skeletal muscle compared with white fibers from old rats. Exercise training resulted in increased OGG1 activity in the nuclei of red fibers and decreased activity in nuclei of white fibers and in the mitochondria of both red and white fibers. The activities of UDG were similar in both red and white muscle fibers. Exercise training appears to increase the activity of UDG in the nuclei and mitochondria. However, exercise training affects the activity of OGG1 in nuclei and mitochondria differently, suggesting different regulation of the enzymes. In contrast, UDG showed similar activities in nuclei and mitochondrial extracts of exercise-trained animals. These data provide evidence for differential regulation of UDG and OGG1 in maintaining fidelity of DNA in oxidatively stressed cells.
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