A 1-V power supply low-power and high-speed 16-b fixed-point digital signal processor using a 0.5-μm process has been developed for mobile phone applications. A 1-V multithreshold-voltage CMOS (MTCMOS) technology that uses both high-threshold-voltage and low-threshold-voltage transistors is one key to attaining low power consumption with keeping processing throughput high. A maximum operating frequency of 13.2 MHz and an energy consumption of 2.2 mW/MHz were achieved at 1 V. The second key to low-power operation is a power management scheme that uses a secondary embedded microprocessor. This proposed scheme minimizes the standby power in the waiting state by effectively controlling the sleep mode in the MTCMOS design. We confirmed that the standby leakage current was reduced three orders of magnitude and that the energy consumed in the waiting state was less than 1/10 of that consumed by conventional CMOS circuits with lowered supply voltage and threshold voltage but without power management.
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