Horizontal wells or laterals are completed as openhole, slotted-liner, cased and perforated, or gravel-pack completions. We have developed a comprehensive skin-factor model to predict the performance of any of these completion types and have calibrated this model with extensive finite-element simulations of flow for a horizontal-well completion. This model can be used to predict the performance of virtually any horizontal-well completion. The new completion skin-factor model accoun ts for the effects of formation damage, convergent flow to perforations and slots, and flow through slots, with interaction among these effects. To account for formation damage, we extended our previous rigorous model of a damaged horizontal well to include the presence of perforations within, or extending through, the damage zone. The formation damage model is also integrated with the models of slotted-liner performance to model these completions. The model of slotted- or perforated-liner performance is made on the basis of the relationship between pressure drop and flow rate for turbulent flow in these geometries. The slotted-liner model accounts for partial plugging of the slots by grains of formation minerals or precipitates (scale). Turbulence effects are a major part of the apparent skin factor for these completion types. The model shows the recommended conditions to obtain high-productivity (i.e., low skin factor) completions in horizontal wells. In particular, the interactions among damage effects and skin effects caused by perforations or slots are shown to greatly affect horizontal-well completion performance. The models developed can be applied to design optimal completions for horizontal wells or laterals.
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