Using a multi-region and multi-sector computable general equilibrium model, this paper evaluates the border adjustment policies of carbon regulations in Japan. We consider five types of border adjustments and examine their effects on the welfare, carbon leakage, and competitiveness of the Japanese energy-intensive trade-exposed (EITE) sectors. Our analysis shows that no single border adjustment policy is superior to the other policies in terms of simultaneously solving three primary issues: Welfare degradation, carbon leakage, and a loss of competitiveness in the EITE sectors. In addition, we show that export border adjustments are effective at restoring the competitiveness of Japanese exporters and reducing leakage. Our analysis also reveals that border adjustment in Japan significantly affects carbon leakage to China and the competitiveness of the iron and steel sectors. Finally, we show that border adjustments with and without consideration of indirect emissions have similar impacts, which indicates that the information regarding direct emissions is sufficient for implementing border adjustment in Japan.
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