To realize direct power generation from biofuels in natural organisms, we demonstrate a needle-type biofuel cell (BFC) using enzyme/mediator/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite fibers with the structure Osmium-based polymer/CNT/glucose oxidase/Os-based polymer/CNT. The composite fibers performed a high current density (10 mA/cm2) in 5 mM artificial blood glucose. Owing to their hydrophilicity, they also provided sufficient ionic conductivity between the needle-type anode and the gas-diffusion cathode. When the tip of the anodic needle was inserted into natural specimens of grape, kiwifruit, and apple, the assembled BFC generated powers of 55, 44, and 33 μW from glucose, respectively. In addition, the power generated from the blood glucose in mouse heart was 16.3 μW at 0.29 V. The lifetime of the BFC was improved by coating an anti-fouling polymer 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) on the anodic electrode, and sealing the cathodic hydrogel chamber with medical tape to minimize the water evaporation without compromising the oxygen permeability.
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