To improve the performance of high-density flash memories, several circuit technologies have been developed. A word-line boost and clamp scheme realizes low supply voltage read operations. A flash programming scheme utilizing Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunneling for programming before erasure and a negative gate biased erasing scheme accomplish low-power, high-speed, and 5-V-only erase operations. The chip size penalty is estimated to be only 3% for the 16-Mb flash memories.
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