In the University of Tokyo, various types of total artificial heart (TAH) have been studied. Based on the experiences of TAH research, the development of the undulation pump total artificial heart (UPTAH) started in 1994. The undulation pump is a small-size, continuous-flow, displacement-type blood pump, and the UPTAH is a unique implantable total artificial heart that uses the undulation pump. To date, three models of UPTAH have been developed. The first model, UPTAH1, was developed to investigate the possibility of reducing the size of the device so it could be implanted in small adults, such as Japanese patients, in 1994. The second model, UPTAH2, which was the prototype of the animal experimental model, was developed in 1996 to investigate the possibility of survival with the UPTAH. The third model, UPTAH3, which is the present model, was developed in 1998 to enable long-term survival in animal experiments and to investigate the pathophysiology of the UPTAH. From July 1996 to October 1999, 22 implantations of UPTAH2 or UPTAH3 were performed in goats. In spite of the limitation of their small chest cavity, the UPTAH could be implanted into the chest of all goats. Using UPTAH3, survival of 31 days could be obtained. The research and development of UPTAH are ongoing.
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