BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin-vesicles (HbVs; diameter, 251 ± 81 nm) are artificial O2 carriers. Their efficacy for acute exchange transfusion has been characterized in animal models. However subsequent profiles of recovery involving the degradation of HbV in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and hematopoiesis remain unknown. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Isovolemic 40 percent exchange transfusion was performed in 60 male Wistar rats with HbV suspended in 5 g per dL recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA; HbV/rHSA, [Hb] = 8.6 g/dL), stored rat RBCs suspended in rHSA (sRBC/rHSA), or rHSA alone. Hematological and plasma biochemical analyses and histopathological examination focusing on the spleen were conducted for the subsequent 14 days. RESULTS: The reduced hematocrit (Hct) level (26%) for the HbV/rHSA and rHSA groups returned to its original level (43%) in 7 days. Plasma erythropoietin was elevated in all groups: the rHSA group showed the highest value on Day 1 (321 ± 123 mIU/mL) relating to the anemic conditions (HbV/rHSA, 153 ± 22; sRBC/rHSA, 63 ± 7; baseline, 21 ± 3). Simultaneously, splenomegaly occurred in all the groups as HbV/rHSA > rHSA > sRBC/rHSA. Histopathologically, the accumulated HbV in the spleen was undetectable by Day 14, but hemosiderin was deposited in slight quantities for both the HbV/rHSA and sRBC/rHSA groups. Considerable amounts of erythroblasts were apparent in the spleens of both the rHSA and the HbV/rHSA groups. CONCLUSION: HbVs were phagocytized and degraded in RES, a physiological compartment for the degradation of RBCs, and the elevated erythropoietic activity resulted in the complete recovery of Hct within 7 days in the rat model.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy