BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Little information is available regarding the interactions of sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the risks of these age-associated diseases in women. The present cross-sectional study was performed to investigate whether the coexistence of sarcopenia and MetS further increases the risks of lifestyle-related diseases in Japanese women.SUBJECTS/METHODS: Healthy Japanese women (n533) aged 30-84 participated in this study. MetS was defined as higher body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, systolic or diastolic blood pressure and blood lipid abnormalities. Appendicular muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The criterion of low muscle mass and strength defined median skeletal muscle index (appendicular muscle mass/height 2, kg/m 2) and handgrip strength.RESULTS: Two-way ANCOVA with adjustment for age, body fat percentage and whole-body lean tissue mass indicated that sarcopenia and MetS interacted to produce a significant effect on HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in Japanese women. The systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity were significantly higher in women with coexisting sarcopenia and MetS than in healthy controls or in those with sarcopenia or MetS alone. The HbA1c in the coexisting sarcopenia and MetS group was higher than in healthy controls and sarcopenia subjects.CONCLUSIONS: The coexistence of sarcopenia and MetS further increases the risks of cardiovascular diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, arterial stiffness and hyperlipidemia even adjustment of age and body composition in adult Japanese women.
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