Delayed encephalopathy (DE) affects not only the cerebral white matter and globus pallidus but also the cortex and thalamus. However, it remains unknown whether these brain lesions alter sleep along with clinical manifestations of DE. A 46-year-old man with DE underwent repetitive hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The patient was evaluated by not only neuropsychological and neuroimaging testing but polysomnography over the clinical course. Neurological symptoms improved markedly; however, profound frontal cognitive deficits continued. The polysomnography revealed prolonged absence and delayed recovery of sleep spindles across recordings. Alterations in spindle oscillations in DE could provide further insight into sleep regulatory networks.
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