Objectives: Although amoxicillin is the first-line prophylactic drug for impacted mandibular third molar extraction, third-generation cephalosporins are widely prescribed in Japan. The lack of real-world evidence may be one reason for this inappropriate use. We evaluated differences in the incidence of surgical site infection between amoxicillin and third-generation cephalosporins for impacted mandibular third molar extraction. Methods: Using the JMDC Claims Database, we identified dental visits with fully or horizontally impacted mandibular third molar extraction from April 2015 to March 2020. One-to-one propensity-score matching was conducted between amoxicillin and third-generation cephalosporin groups. The incidence of surgical site infection following extraction was compared in the matched pairs using McNemar's test. Results: We identified 109,266 dental visits, including 39,514 (36.2%) patients who received amoxicillin and 69,752 (63.8%) patients who received third-generation cephalosporins. In the 39,514 matched pairs, the incidence of surgical site infection was 3.5% (n = 1399) for amoxicillin group and 3.7% (n = 1467) for third-generation cephalosporin group (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Amoxicillin was associated with a lower incidence of surgical site infection after impacted mandibular third molar extraction compared with third-generation cephalosporins. This result supports current guidelines and strengthens the importance of disseminating and implementing antimicrobial resistance control in dentistry.
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