The delivery of sustainable development goals (SDGs) through a participatory land and forest conservation initiative was evaluated in South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The initiative focused on the rehabilitation of a 410 ha forest that was managed by local villagers. A forest rehabilitation and management initiative was developed through participatory action, establishing a well-managed rubber plantation that provided new livelihood opportunities. Poverty reduction was promoted, evidenced by a reduction in inequality amongst the local community. Between 2010 and 2018 the Gini coefficient of inequality declined from 34.6% to 31.3%, demonstrating a contribution to SDGs 1 (No Poverty) and 10 (Reduced Inequalities). In addition, forest rehabilitation resulted in improved carbon stock and biodiversity management contributing to SDG15 (Life on Land). This was attributed to successful forest rehabilitation and the reduced incidence of forest fires. Cooperation amongst local villagers categorized as living in poor households was improved, facilitated by capacity building. This focused on rubber plantation management, cooperative action, and firefighting activities. This capacity building contributed to the delivery of SDG 17 (Partnerships for the Goals). Results from a socio-economic survey demonstrated that group activities and cooperation amongst stakeholders were essential to improve both livelihoods and forest management practices.
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