The electroless-deposition process of NiP film was studied using in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). By potentiostatic control of the substrate electrode during the STM scan, the initial deposition process of NiP was observed, revealing features that differ from those of the electrodeposition process, which was also observed in situ. The growth process over the same area during the progress of deposition was also observed sequentially. The results obtained suggest that the electroless-deposition process of NiP is a result of continuous nucleation of grains and their three-dimensional growth.
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