In the tilt illusion, the orientation of a central stimulus appears tilted away from a surrounding stimulus when angular difference is between 0 deg and 50 deg. Studies have repeatedly shown that the tilt illusion exhibits the strongest effect with the angular difference around 15 deg and this angular tuning is robust to various changes in stimulus parameters. We revisited the well-reported angular tuning of the tilt illusion, in relation to the recently-reported modulation of illusion magnitude by stimulus duration. We examined the tilt illusion with a wide range of stimulus duration (10–640 ms) and angular difference (7.5–75.0 deg). The results confirmed that the peak magnitude of the tilt illusion increased with shorter durations. However, we also found that the position of the peak shifted to larger angular differences with shorter durations. Evidently, the angular tuning profile of the tilt illusion is not fixed but can change with stimulus duration. The peak shift may be explained if orientation-selective lateral inhibition responsible for the tilt illusion sharpens its tuning over time.
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