To realize electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using a simple measurement system, application of a square potential/current waveform to the input signals of EIS was investigated. The impedance of a simple redox reaction of [Fe(CN)6]4-/[Fe(CN)6]3- solution was measured by the potentio-EIS using a square waveform as the input signal, which was generated by a potentiostat system without a frequency response analyzer (FRA). A steady impedance response in the frequency range of 40 Hz-3.5 kHz was obtained, and the impedance was obtained by the potentiostat system with an FRA. The errors - the differences between the impedance measured by EIS with a square potential waveform and that of conventional EIS - were sufficiently low to allow impedance analysis. The impedance of a lithium-ion battery (LIB) was measured by galvano-EIS using a square waveform input signal generated by a power controller. A steady impedance response in the frequency range of 5 Hz-2.5 kHz was obtained, and the errors were sufficiently low to allow impedance analysis. It was demonstrated that both square potential-EIS (SP-EIS) and square current-EIS (SC-EIS) have great potential as simple systems for measuring impedance. Moreover, it was demonstrated that SC-EIS has potential as a simple measurement system for analyzing the state of an LIB. Thus, the potential of the SP/SC-EIS methodology was confirmed for electrochemical systems.
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