Passive systems that utilize a natural power such as a pond, plant, or microorganisms, is expected to be a cost-effective method for acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment. The Ningyo-toge mine, a non-operational uranium mine located in Okayama Prefecture, Japan, generates AMD containing arsenic and iron. To quantitatively study arsenic and iron ion removal in an artificial wetland and pond, chemical reactions were modeled and incorporated into the GETFLOWS (general-purpose terrestrial fluid-flow simulator) software. The chemical reaction models consisted of arsenite and ferrous oxidation equations and arsenic adsorption on ferrihydrite. The X-ray diffraction analysis of sediment samples showed ferrihydrite patterns. These results were consistent with the model for arsenite/ferrous oxidation and arsenic adsorption on ferrihydrite. Geofluid simulation was conducted to simulate mass transfer with the utilized topographic model, inlet flow rate, precipitation, and evaporation. The measured arsenic and iron ions concentrations in solution samples from the wetland and pond, fitted well with the model. This indicated that the main removal mechanism was the oxidation of arsenite/ferrous ions and that arsenic was removed by adsorption rather than dilution.
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