Here, we propose simple diamond functionalization by carboxyl termination for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection by an aptamer. The high-sensitivity label-free aptamer sensor for ATP detection was fabricated on nanocrystalline diamond (NCD). Carboxyl termination of the NCD surface by vacuum ultraviolet excimer laser and fluorine termination of the background region as a passivated layer were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Single strand DNA (amide modification) was used as the supporting biomolecule to immobilize into the diamond surface via carboxyl termination and become a double strand with aptamer. ATP detection by aptamer was observed as a 66% fluorescence signal intensity decrease of the hybridization intensity signal. The sensor operation was also investigated by the field-effect characteristics. The shift of the drain current–drain voltage characteristics was used as the indicator for detection of ATP. From the field-effect characteristics, the shift of the drain current–drain voltage was observed in the negative direction. The negative charge direction shows that the aptamer is capable of detecting ATP. The ability of the sensor to detect ATP was investigated by fabricating a field-effect transistor on the modified NCD surface.
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