A photoassisted anodization process to fabricate arrays of uniform and straight macropores at selected areas of a Si wafer surface was developed. The front- and backside surfaces of n-type Si(100) wafers were coated with a thin Si3N2 layer, and the frontside layer was micro-patterned using photolithography and reactive ion etching to form an array of microscopic openings at selected areas. The inverted pyramid-shape micropits were formed at these openings by anisotropic etching using aqueous KOH solution; these pits act as the initiation sites for the anodization to form macropores. The electrochemical etching was carried out in aqueous HF solution under illumination from the backside of the wafer, on which Au/Cr electric contact was formed following removal of the Si3N4 layer. To improve the uniformity of the formation condition of the macropores at the selected area, holes were area-selectively generated by controlling the illumination condition during the anodization. For this, micropatterns were formed on the Au/Cr layer at the backside surface, which were aligned to those at the frontside surface. The parameters, such as HF concentration, current density, and wafer thickness, i.e., hole diffusion length, were optimized, and the arrays of uniform and high-aspect-ratio macropores were formed at the selected area of the domain at the silicon surface.
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