Influenza virus, through cell invasion and propagation with the interaction between hemagglutinin (HA) present on its surface and glycans on the host cell, causes a rapidly spreading infection throughout the world. In the present investigation, we succeeded for the first time in the attomolar-level sensing and discrimination of influenza A viral HA molecules H1 and H5 by using a glycan-immobilized field effect transistor (FET) biosensor. The small ligand glycans immobilized on the FET device, which make effective use of the charge-detectable region for FET-based detection in terms of Debye length, gave an advantage in the highly sensitive detection of the proteins. Two kinds of trisaccharides receptors terminating in sialic acid-α2,6-galactose (6′-sialyllactose) and in sialic acid-α2,3-galactose (3′-sialyllactose) were conjugated directly with the SiO2 surface of FET devices by a simple glycoblotting method using the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of aminooxy terminated silane-coupling reagent, 3-aminooxypropyltriethoxysilane. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the FETs with densely immobilized glycans, which possess the high capture ability by achieving the glycoside cluster effect, clearly distinguish HA molecules between their subtypes H1 (human) and H5 (avian) at the attomolar level, while the conventional method based on HA antibodies achieves only picomolar-level detection. Our findings indicate that the glycan-immobilized FET is a promising device to detect various pathogenic bacteria and viruses through glycan-protein interaction found ubiquitously in many infectious diseases.
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