Axion is a promising candidate for ultralight dark matter which may cause a polarization rotation of laser light. Recently, a new idea of probing the axion dark matter by optical linear cavities used in the arms of gravitational wave detectors has been proposed [Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 111301 (2019)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.123.111301. In this article, a realistic scheme of the axion dark matter search with the arm cavity transmission ports is revisited. Since photons detected by the transmission ports travel in the cavity for odd-number of times, the effect of axion dark matter on their phases is not canceled out and the sensitivity at low-mass range is significantly improved compared to the search using reflection ports. We also take into account the stochastic nature of the axion field and the availability of the two detection ports in the gravitational wave detectors. The sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling, gaγ, of the ground-based gravitational wave detector, such as Advanced LIGO, with 1-year observation is estimated to be gaγ∼3×10-12 GeV-1 below the axion mass of 10-15 eV, which improves upon the limit achieved by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope.
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