Bioaerosols are atmospheric particles with a biological trace, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and plant material such as pollen and plant debris. In this study, we analyzed the biological information in bioaerosols using next generation sequencing of the trace DNA. The samples were collected using an Andersen air sampler and separated into two groups according to particulate matter (PM) size: small (PM2.5) and large (PM10). Amplification and sequencing of the bacterial 16S rDNA gene, prokaryotic internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region and DNA sequence of a plant chloroplast gene (rbcL) were carried out using several sets of specific primers targeting animal and plant sequences. Lots of bacterial information was detected from the bioaerosols. The most abundant bacteria in several samples were of the Actinobacteria (class), Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli, and Clostridia. For the animal detection using internal transcribed spacer 1, only uncultured fungi were detected in more than half of the hits, with a high number of Cladosporium sp. in the samples. For the plant identification, the ITS1 information only matched fungal species. However, targeting of the rbcL region revealed diverse plant information, such as Medicago papillosa. In conclusion, traces of bacteria, fungi, and plants could be detected in the bioaerosols, but not of animals using our primers.
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