Carbon 1s X-ray photoelectron spectra of realistic samples of hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated CVD diamond (111) and (001)

Shozo Kono, Taisuke Kageura, Yuya Hayashi, Sung Gi Ri, Tokuyuki Teraji, Daisuke Takeuchi, Masahiko Ogura, Hideyuki Kodama, Atsuhito Sawabe, Masafumi Inaba, Atsushi Hiraiwa, Hiroshi Kawarada

    研究成果: Article

    抄録

    Key factors in C 1s photoelectron spectroscopy for realistic samples of single crystal diamonds are remarked. Basic equations for angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy applied to single crystal diamond samples are described in Appendix A. Carbon 1s photoelectron spectroscopic works so far reported for hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated diamond (001) and (111) samples were reviewed placing special attention on surface C 1s components with reference to the key factors. The results showed diversity in C 1s photoelectron spectra so far reported. We had three specific subjects of the study in C 1s XPS; the first is that we have reconfirmed the phenomenon that surface conductive layers resumed when smooth non-doped CVD C(111)-O samples were annealed in vacuum [Diam.Rela.Mate.18(2009)206]. A single C 1s XPS surface component was found for a smooth C(111)-O sample before the vacuum-anneal, which was attributed to surface carbon atoms in C–O–H bonding. The second subject is that dependence of C 1s XPS spectra on surface sensitivity has been measured for all the samples with different surface roughness of C(001)-O, C(111)-O, C(001)-H, and C(111)-H. The results were converted to the energy difference between the Fermi-level (Ef) and valence band maximum (Ev) on the probing depth from the surface. All the samples showed downward bending of Ev toward the surface. For the C(001)-H samples, this was a reconfirmation of previous work [Surf.Sci.604(2010)1148]. For the C(001)-H and C(111)-H samples, various degrees of downward band bending toward surface were observed and analyzed with two-dimensional band simulation. It was concluded that another source of holes such as shallow acceptors is present in a deeper region of the surface in addition to holes very close to surface caused by the charge-transfer-doping. The third subject is that C 1s XPS spectra for superconducting C(111)-O samples showed a lattice distortion of ~9 monolayers near the surface.

    元の言語English
    ページ(範囲)105-130
    ページ数26
    ジャーナルDiamond and Related Materials
    93
    DOI
    出版物ステータスPublished - 2019 3 1

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    Diamond
    Photoelectrons
    Hydrogen
    Chemical vapor deposition
    Diamonds
    Carbon
    Oxygen
    X rays
    X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
    Photoelectron spectroscopy
    Single crystals
    Vacuum
    Surface phenomena
    Valence bands
    Fermi level
    Charge transfer
    Monolayers
    Surface roughness
    Doping (additives)
    Atoms

    Keywords

      ASJC Scopus subject areas

      • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
      • Chemistry(all)
      • Mechanical Engineering
      • Materials Chemistry
      • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

      これを引用

      Carbon 1s X-ray photoelectron spectra of realistic samples of hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated CVD diamond (111) and (001). / Kono, Shozo; Kageura, Taisuke; Hayashi, Yuya; Ri, Sung Gi; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Ogura, Masahiko; Kodama, Hideyuki; Sawabe, Atsuhito; Inaba, Masafumi; Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Kawarada, Hiroshi.

      :: Diamond and Related Materials, 巻 93, 01.03.2019, p. 105-130.

      研究成果: Article

      Kono, S, Kageura, T, Hayashi, Y, Ri, SG, Teraji, T, Takeuchi, D, Ogura, M, Kodama, H, Sawabe, A, Inaba, M, Hiraiwa, A & Kawarada, H 2019, 'Carbon 1s X-ray photoelectron spectra of realistic samples of hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated CVD diamond (111) and (001)' Diamond and Related Materials, 巻. 93, pp. 105-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diamond.2019.01.017
      Kono, Shozo ; Kageura, Taisuke ; Hayashi, Yuya ; Ri, Sung Gi ; Teraji, Tokuyuki ; Takeuchi, Daisuke ; Ogura, Masahiko ; Kodama, Hideyuki ; Sawabe, Atsuhito ; Inaba, Masafumi ; Hiraiwa, Atsushi ; Kawarada, Hiroshi. / Carbon 1s X-ray photoelectron spectra of realistic samples of hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated CVD diamond (111) and (001). :: Diamond and Related Materials. 2019 ; 巻 93. pp. 105-130.
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      abstract = "Key factors in C 1s photoelectron spectroscopy for realistic samples of single crystal diamonds are remarked. Basic equations for angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy applied to single crystal diamond samples are described in Appendix A. Carbon 1s photoelectron spectroscopic works so far reported for hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated diamond (001) and (111) samples were reviewed placing special attention on surface C 1s components with reference to the key factors. The results showed diversity in C 1s photoelectron spectra so far reported. We had three specific subjects of the study in C 1s XPS; the first is that we have reconfirmed the phenomenon that surface conductive layers resumed when smooth non-doped CVD C(111)-O samples were annealed in vacuum [Diam.Rela.Mate.18(2009)206]. A single C 1s XPS surface component was found for a smooth C(111)-O sample before the vacuum-anneal, which was attributed to surface carbon atoms in C–O–H bonding. The second subject is that dependence of C 1s XPS spectra on surface sensitivity has been measured for all the samples with different surface roughness of C(001)-O, C(111)-O, C(001)-H, and C(111)-H. The results were converted to the energy difference between the Fermi-level (Ef) and valence band maximum (Ev) on the probing depth from the surface. All the samples showed downward bending of Ev toward the surface. For the C(001)-H samples, this was a reconfirmation of previous work [Surf.Sci.604(2010)1148]. For the C(001)-H and C(111)-H samples, various degrees of downward band bending toward surface were observed and analyzed with two-dimensional band simulation. It was concluded that another source of holes such as shallow acceptors is present in a deeper region of the surface in addition to holes very close to surface caused by the charge-transfer-doping. The third subject is that C 1s XPS spectra for superconducting C(111)-O samples showed a lattice distortion of ~9 monolayers near the surface.",
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      author = "Shozo Kono and Taisuke Kageura and Yuya Hayashi and Ri, {Sung Gi} and Tokuyuki Teraji and Daisuke Takeuchi and Masahiko Ogura and Hideyuki Kodama and Atsuhito Sawabe and Masafumi Inaba and Atsushi Hiraiwa and Hiroshi Kawarada",
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      AU - Kono, Shozo

      AU - Kageura, Taisuke

      AU - Hayashi, Yuya

      AU - Ri, Sung Gi

      AU - Teraji, Tokuyuki

      AU - Takeuchi, Daisuke

      AU - Ogura, Masahiko

      AU - Kodama, Hideyuki

      AU - Sawabe, Atsuhito

      AU - Inaba, Masafumi

      AU - Hiraiwa, Atsushi

      AU - Kawarada, Hiroshi

      PY - 2019/3/1

      Y1 - 2019/3/1

      N2 - Key factors in C 1s photoelectron spectroscopy for realistic samples of single crystal diamonds are remarked. Basic equations for angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy applied to single crystal diamond samples are described in Appendix A. Carbon 1s photoelectron spectroscopic works so far reported for hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated diamond (001) and (111) samples were reviewed placing special attention on surface C 1s components with reference to the key factors. The results showed diversity in C 1s photoelectron spectra so far reported. We had three specific subjects of the study in C 1s XPS; the first is that we have reconfirmed the phenomenon that surface conductive layers resumed when smooth non-doped CVD C(111)-O samples were annealed in vacuum [Diam.Rela.Mate.18(2009)206]. A single C 1s XPS surface component was found for a smooth C(111)-O sample before the vacuum-anneal, which was attributed to surface carbon atoms in C–O–H bonding. The second subject is that dependence of C 1s XPS spectra on surface sensitivity has been measured for all the samples with different surface roughness of C(001)-O, C(111)-O, C(001)-H, and C(111)-H. The results were converted to the energy difference between the Fermi-level (Ef) and valence band maximum (Ev) on the probing depth from the surface. All the samples showed downward bending of Ev toward the surface. For the C(001)-H samples, this was a reconfirmation of previous work [Surf.Sci.604(2010)1148]. For the C(001)-H and C(111)-H samples, various degrees of downward band bending toward surface were observed and analyzed with two-dimensional band simulation. It was concluded that another source of holes such as shallow acceptors is present in a deeper region of the surface in addition to holes very close to surface caused by the charge-transfer-doping. The third subject is that C 1s XPS spectra for superconducting C(111)-O samples showed a lattice distortion of ~9 monolayers near the surface.

      AB - Key factors in C 1s photoelectron spectroscopy for realistic samples of single crystal diamonds are remarked. Basic equations for angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy applied to single crystal diamond samples are described in Appendix A. Carbon 1s photoelectron spectroscopic works so far reported for hydrogen-terminated and oxygen-terminated diamond (001) and (111) samples were reviewed placing special attention on surface C 1s components with reference to the key factors. The results showed diversity in C 1s photoelectron spectra so far reported. We had three specific subjects of the study in C 1s XPS; the first is that we have reconfirmed the phenomenon that surface conductive layers resumed when smooth non-doped CVD C(111)-O samples were annealed in vacuum [Diam.Rela.Mate.18(2009)206]. A single C 1s XPS surface component was found for a smooth C(111)-O sample before the vacuum-anneal, which was attributed to surface carbon atoms in C–O–H bonding. The second subject is that dependence of C 1s XPS spectra on surface sensitivity has been measured for all the samples with different surface roughness of C(001)-O, C(111)-O, C(001)-H, and C(111)-H. The results were converted to the energy difference between the Fermi-level (Ef) and valence band maximum (Ev) on the probing depth from the surface. All the samples showed downward bending of Ev toward the surface. For the C(001)-H samples, this was a reconfirmation of previous work [Surf.Sci.604(2010)1148]. For the C(001)-H and C(111)-H samples, various degrees of downward band bending toward surface were observed and analyzed with two-dimensional band simulation. It was concluded that another source of holes such as shallow acceptors is present in a deeper region of the surface in addition to holes very close to surface caused by the charge-transfer-doping. The third subject is that C 1s XPS spectra for superconducting C(111)-O samples showed a lattice distortion of ~9 monolayers near the surface.

      KW - 1s core level

      KW - Band bending

      KW - Carbon

      KW - CVD diamond

      KW - Surface

      KW - X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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