Recently, there has been an increase in the number of “unreported” cases in the Population Census of Japan caused by nonresponses to the survey. Subsequently, this has led to data reliability challenges. In light of this problem, the factors related to the low response rate of the 2015 Population Census in the central Tokyo area are examined in the present study. An online survey was conducted among individuals residing in the three Special Wards of Tokyo to inquire about their responses (submitted or not submitted) to the previous census. The statistical analyses demonstrated that particularly in central Tokyo, middle-aged (35–49 years) people and those who did not own a single-family residence were more likely to be nonrespondents, while most of the other characteristics were similar to the results reported in a previous nationwide study. However, further studies are required to fully understand the high rates of unreported cases in central Tokyo.
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