Objective: To investigate EEG changes during an auditory odd-ball task while walking (dual-task) in young adults, older adults, and patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: 11 young adults, 10 older adults, and 10 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) performed an auditory oddball task during standing and walking on a treadmill, while wearing a wireless EEG cap. The amplitude and latency of P300 were compared between groups and within conditions using linear mix model analysis. Gait was evaluated using wearable sensors and cognition was assessed using the Color Trail Test. Results: P300 latency became longer during walking in all groups (p = 0.005). During walking, older adults (p = 0.005) and patients with PD (p = 0.001) showed prolonged P300 latency compared to young adults. Significant task by group interaction was found in P300 amplitude (p = 0.008). Patients with PD demonstrated reduced P300 amplitude during walking compared to standing (p = 0.023). Among all subjects, better motor and cognitive performance correlated with shorter P300 latency (r = 0.457, p = 0.014 and r = 0.431, p = 0.040, respectively). Conclusions: These findings provide direct evidence of the physiological recruitment of attentional networks during walking and their impact by ageing and disease. Significance: This study is the first to report on changes in P300 latency and amplitude during dual-task oddball walking in older adults and patients with PD.
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