The negative impact of COVID-19 on physical activity has been improved, while the research on changes in physical fitness that may be caused by physical inactivity is still scarce. This study aims to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on physical fitness, and the impact of initial physical fitness indicators on their changes during the lockdown in adoles-cents. A longitudinal study including 265 adolescents aged 14.1 ± 0.4 years old was conducted in China. Physical fitness measurement at baseline and follow-up were respectively measured before (November 2019) and after the lockdown (July 2020). Several physical fitness indicators including aerobic fitness (i.e., 800-m or 1000-m run) and explosive force (i.e., 50-m sprint) deteriorated during the lockdown. Whereas the performances of vital capacity, flexibility (i.e., sit and reach), and muscular strength (i.e., pull-ups) were significantly improved during the lockdown. Furthermore, the reduction in physical fitness for adolescents with higher physical fitness before the lockdown was greater than that for others. These findings may contribute to the development of targeted intervention strategies for physical fitness promotion during the lockdown caused by the public health emergency.
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