One of the advantages of magnetic levitation using high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk is that stable levitation can be achieved without any control systems. We have been investigating the electromagnetic behaviors of HTS bulk to realize a two-dimensional magnetic levitating transporter without any fixed guides. The characteristics of lift and stability are key parameters to design and optimize such a device. We measured the lift and the restoring force of a YBCO bulk, displaced by a distance in lateral direction, for various field-cooling conditions and permanent-magnet arrangements. Both lift and restoring force are closely related to the air gap in the field-cooling process, distance between the permanent magnets, number of permanent magnets, and permanent magnet arrangement, that is, external magnetic field distribution. The most suitable arrangement of permanent magnets depends on the required levitation height and the weight of the levitating part. It can be considered that the size of the levitating part and geometry are also very important to determine the optimal arrangement in the maglev device.
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