Citric acid is one of the most widely used organic acids, and its annual worldwide output has reached 2.1 million ton in 2016. It is used as an acidulant and preservative in the food industries, and also used as a complexing agent and starting materials for functional compounds in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Citric acid is also used as a complexing and chelating agent in metal treatment, as a water softener for detergents, and as a buffering agent in toiletry and pharmaceutical industries. Citric acid is exclusively produced by fermentation with filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. The industrial production is performed using carbohydrates or agro-industrial residues as substrates by three different type processes: submerged, surface, and solid fermentations. This chapter provides advances in citric acid production by A. niger and application of citric acid in various fields.
|出版ステータス||Published - 2019 1 1|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)