TY - JOUR

T1 - Common-acoustical-pole and zero modeling of head-related transfer functions

AU - Haneda, Yoichi

AU - Makino, Shoji

AU - Kaneda, Yutaka

AU - Kitawaki, Nobuhiko

PY - 1999

Y1 - 1999

N2 - Use of a common-acoustical-pole and zero model is proposed for modeling head-related transfer functions (HRTF's) for various directions of sound incidence. The HRTF's are expressed using the common acoustical poles, which do not depend on the source directions, and the zeros, which do. The common acoustical poles are estimated as they are common to HRTF's for various source directions; the estimated values of the poles agree well with the resonance frequencies of the ear canal. Because this model uses only the zeros to express the HRTF variations due to changes in source direction, it requires fewer parameters (the order of the zeros) that depend on the source direction than do the conventional all-zero or pole/zero models. Furthermore, the proposed model can extract the zeros that are missed in the conventional models because of pole-zero cancellation. As a result, the directional dependence of the zeros can be traced well. Analysis of the zeros for HRTF's on the horizontal plane showed that the nonminimum-phase zero variation was well formulated using a simple pinna-reflection model. The common-acousticalpole and zero (CAPZ) model is thus effective for modeling and analyzing HRTF's.

AB - Use of a common-acoustical-pole and zero model is proposed for modeling head-related transfer functions (HRTF's) for various directions of sound incidence. The HRTF's are expressed using the common acoustical poles, which do not depend on the source directions, and the zeros, which do. The common acoustical poles are estimated as they are common to HRTF's for various source directions; the estimated values of the poles agree well with the resonance frequencies of the ear canal. Because this model uses only the zeros to express the HRTF variations due to changes in source direction, it requires fewer parameters (the order of the zeros) that depend on the source direction than do the conventional all-zero or pole/zero models. Furthermore, the proposed model can extract the zeros that are missed in the conventional models because of pole-zero cancellation. As a result, the directional dependence of the zeros can be traced well. Analysis of the zeros for HRTF's on the horizontal plane showed that the nonminimum-phase zero variation was well formulated using a simple pinna-reflection model. The common-acousticalpole and zero (CAPZ) model is thus effective for modeling and analyzing HRTF's.

KW - Head-related transfer function

KW - Modeling

KW - Nonminimum-phase zeros

KW - Poles and zeros

KW - Resonance frequency

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033100241&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033100241&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1109/89.748123

DO - 10.1109/89.748123

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0033100241

VL - 7

SP - 188

EP - 195

JO - IEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio Processing

JF - IEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio Processing

SN - 1063-6676

IS - 2

ER -