Further development of medical devices for children is required in Japan, but the development of such devices is delayed compared to that of medical devices for adults. Herein, we investigated policies for advancing the development of pediatric medical devices in Japan and the United States. Considering the achievements of each policy, we proposed a strategy to promote further development of pediatric medical devices in Japan. We investigated policies for supporting the development of pediatric medical devices and approved cases in Japan and the United States by searching contents of websites of regulatory bodies and other related administrations, and scientific papers. We found the main six policies in Japan and nine main policies in the United States for the development of pediatric medical devices. In the United States, various measures have initiated mainly in the 2000s, while in Japan, the main measures have been in place since 2013. Similarities were found in both countries, such as subsidies for application fees and research and development expenses, exemption of requirements for regulatory approval, and priority review and consultation by the regulatory body. Our study revealed that there are similarities in initiatives by both countries. To promote further development of pediatric medical devices in the future, improvements to expediting the review process to approval by the regulatory body, global development, and implementation of alternative measures to ensure the efficacy and safety of the device instead of large-scale clinical trials should be anticipated through cooperation among industry, government, and academia.
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