A Na-smectite clay mineral (Na-Mt) was exchanged with two concentrations of benzyldimethyltetradecyl ammonium chloride cationic surfactant up to one time the cation exchange capacity. Nonionic organoclay was prepared with polyoxyethylene (20) oleyl ether (Brij-O20) nonionic surfactant at one concentration. The resulting organoclays displayed lateral layer organization of the surfactants within their interlayer space.. The adsorption properties of these organoclays and the starting raw clay mineral were evaluated for three extensively used antibiotic pharmaceutical products: the amoxicillin (AMX), the sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and the trimethoprim (TRI), recognized as recalcitrant compounds to conventional water treatments and to display a complex behavior for different pH and temperature experimental conditions. Besides showing short half-life time with possible degradation by UV radiation, these antibiotics associated with mineral phases cause serious environmental issues of which the toxic effect can be exacerbated in the presence of other chemical compounds. From the set of data obtained by complementary techniques: UV and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction, it appears that the nonionic organoclay shows its versatility for the adsorption of individual molecules as well as a pool of antibiotics. The mixing of the three antibiotics showing different electric charged species (cations, anions, and zwitterions) mimics the natural context drives to a deep modification of the adsorption behavior onto the different materials that can act as possible carrier mineral phases in aquatic environment. These competition effects can be measured through the significant decrease of the KF Freundlich constants for AMX in the presence of other molecules (or electrolytes), whereas TRI and SMX, by their possible association, create a synergistic effect that favors their adsorption on the whole layered materials.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- 化学 (全般)