Manganese-based aqueous batteries have attracted significant attention due to their earth-abundant components and low environmental burden. However, state-of-the-art manganese-zinc batteries are poorly rechargeable, owing to dendrite formation on the zinc anode. Organic materials could provide a safe and sustainable replacement. In the present work, a conducting redox polymer (CRP) based on a trimer of EPE (E=3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene; P=3,4-propylenedioxythiophene) and a naphthoquinone (NQ) pendant group is used as anode in polymer-manganese secondary batteries. The polymer shows stable redox conversion around+0.05 V vs. Ag/AgCl, and fast kinetics that involves proton cycling during pendant group redox conversion. For the first time, a CRP-manganese secondary battery was fabricated with pEP(NQ)E as the anode, manganese oxide as the cathode, and manganese-containing acidic aqueous solution as the electrolyte. This battery yielded a discharge voltage of 1.0 V and a discharging capacity of 76 mAh/ganode over >50 cycles and high rate capabilities (up to 10 C).
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