Homestead forests in the Teknaf Peninsula ecologically critical area of Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh have not been widely studied. This paper explores floristic diversity of homestead forests together with their contribution to the household economy and climate change mitigation. Data were collected from a survey of 140 households and a vegetation survey of 70 homesteads in three sites. Villagers allocated 70 % of their homestead area for homestead forestry and altogether 73 plant species were recorded from the study sites. The average density was 4,000 plants/ha. The above-ground biomass was estimated 235.45 Mg/ha, equivalent to 117.73 Mg C/ha. Villagers maintain sustainability of homestead forests by planting seedlings every year and thus ensure several diameter and height classes. Homestead forests contribute substantially to household income, provide fuelwood and timber for own consumption and sale, and protect villagers during cyclones. Homestead forests thus meet the conditions to be a clean development mechanism forestry project which would provide a win–win strategy for involving small-scale farmers in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives, and biodiversity conservation.
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