It has been thought that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of many endocytic proteins, including amphiphysin I and dynamin I. Here, we show that Cdk5/p35-dependent cophosphorylation of amphiphysin I and dynamin I plays a critical role in such processes. Cdk5 inhibitors enhanced the electric stimulation-induced endocytosis in hippocampal neurons, and the endocytosis was also enhanced in the neurons of p35-deficient mice. Cdk5 phosphorylated the proline-rich domain of both amphiphysin I and dynamin I in vitro and in vivo. Cdk5-dependent phosphorylation of amphiphysin I inhibited the association with β-adaptin. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of dynamin I blocked its binding to amphiphysin I. The phosphorylation of each protein reduced the copolymerization into a ring formation in a cell-free system. Moreover, the phosphorylation of both proteins completely disrupted the copolymerization into a ring formation. Finally, phosphorylation of both proteins was undetectable in p35-deficient mice.
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