In this study, we examine how establishment-level aggression originating from customers can lead to voluntary turnover. We also examine whether establishment-level factors, such as collective voice, high involvement work practices and control-based work practices, moderate this relationship. By analysing a sample of 139 call centres in Canada, we found that establishment-level customer aggression is positively related to the workforce quit rate. Furthermore, we found that this positive relationship is weaker in establishments where employees have access to collective voice and in establishments that use fewer control-based human resource practices.
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