Acid deposition causes the forest decline and the acidification of lakes and marshes. Furthermore, historic stone monuments, which were made of marble, limestone, and so on, have been reported to be deteriorated by acid deposition and concrete structures may be deteriorated as well. There are few studies on the effects of acid rain on mortar and concrete, though the effects of CO2 and SO2 have been studied. Deterioration of concrete structures by acid rain is guessed to proceed as follows. (1) Dissolution of aggregate, hydrated and unhydrated materials at the surface. (2) Conversion of CaCO3, which is formed by carbonation of hydrated materials, to water soluble salts. (3) Elution of the salts at the surface and development of stress by deposition of the salt beneath the surface. (4) Cracking by formation of corrosion materials such as ettringite, which occupy a large volume. (5) Cracking and spalling by the corrosion of reinforcing steel, which is lead to by neutralization and penetration of chloride and sulfate. At present, there is no obvious evidence showing that deterioration of well-constructed concrete structures is accelerated by acid rain, though the investigation is limited.
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