This paper describes an outdoor positioning system for vehicles that can be applied to an urban canyon by using an omnidirectional infrared (IR) camera and a digital surface model (DSM). By means of omnidirectional IR images, this system enables robust positioning in urban areas where satellite invisibility caused by buildings hampers high-precision GPS measurements. The omnidirectional IR camera can generate IR images with an elevation of 20-70° for the surrounding area of 360°. The image captured by the camera is highly robust to light disturbances in the outdoor environment. Through the IR camera, the sky appears distinctively dark; this enables easy detection of the border between the sky and the buildings captured in white due to the difference in the atmospheric transmittance rate between visible light and IR rays. The omnidirectional image, which includes several building profiles, is compared with building-restoration images produced by the corresponding DSM in order to determine the self-position. Field experiments in an urban area show that the proposed outdoor positioning method is valid and effective, even if high-rise buildings cause satellite blockage that affects GPS measurements.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Control and Systems Engineering
- Human-Computer Interaction
- Hardware and Architecture
- Computer Science Applications