We have developed a hybrid long-range transport (LRT) model to estimate long-term sulfur deposition amounts in Japan. This model combines a trajectory model for the LRT with an Eulerian model for the short-range transport and deposition. The hybrid model shows the ability to predict concentrations influenced by large nearby sources, which the trajectory model we previously developed consistently underestimated. The hybrid model is designed as an engineering model, which allows for long-term estimation without the requirements of detailed data on meteorology, surface condition, and emission over the whole domain, and huge computer resources required for comprehensive Eulerian models.
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