This manuscript reviewed the neurotoxicity of dioxins and related compounds with an emphasis on maternal exposure. The brain during developmental period is thought to be highly sensitive to dioxin and its related compounds that affect a broad range of brain functions from the advanced brain function to the reproduction-controlling function, even at low doses. It is suggested that dioxins exhibit endocrine-disrupting action on the gonadal and thyroid hormone axes, as well as the 'neural-disrupting action' on neural transmission and neural network formation. From behavioral toxicological studies as well as studies on the underlying mechanisms of dioxins' toxicity, dioxins affect some specific functions in particular regions or cells of the brain at critical windows during the developmental period.
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