Diesel engines exhibit highly efficient, environmentally sound performance under good operational control; however, because of the demand of controlling multiple actuators under various environmental conditions, the conventional experimental method for controlling diesel engines has become increasingly difficult. Therefore, diesel combustion models with less calculation loads were ultimately developed with the aim of implementing such model-based controllers for engine control unit in the future. To achieve the on-board application of the diesel combustion model, the in-cylinder state of a single cycle was discretized into several representative phases such as a valve-opening and valve-closing phase, ignition phase, and maximum pressure phase. Temperature and oxygen quantities in residual gas were considered as the state variables of the system because they have a critical effect on combustion and induce cyclic coupling. The model could take account of the effect of actuators in diesel engines, and the states in each phase were calculated by fundamental thermodynamic equations and some empirical equations. The model was validated against experimental results and had a good agreement with in-cylinder pressures and temperatures at each phase. In addition, the calculation times of the model were confirmed to be capable of on-board application. Furthermore, as a demonstrative example and to show the added value of the model, it was used to synthesize controllers to enable multi-input/multi-output control of a diesel engine in simulation.
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