Purpose: While the association between diet quality and mortality has been previously demonstrated, the association between frailty and diet quality has not been evaluated well. This study aimed to investigate the association between diet quality and prevalence of both physical and comprehensive frailty, using two validated tools, in a community-based cohort of older adults. Methods: We conducted cross-sectional analyses using baseline data of 7022 participants aged ≥ 65 years in the Kyoto-Kameoka study. Diet quality was assessed by calculating the adherence scores to the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top using a validated questionnaire; the participants were stratified into quartile groups based on these scores. Physical and comprehensive frailty was assessed using the Fried phenotype model-based Frailty Screening Index and the Kihon Checklist, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression and the restricted cubic spline model were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between adherence scores and frailty prevalence. Results: Higher adherence scores signified a higher intake of vitamin C, vegetables, dairy products, and fruits. Physical and comprehensive frailty prevalence was 14.2 and 35.8%, respectively. In a multivariable adjusted model, compared with the bottom adherence score quartile, the top quartile was associated with lower ORs of physical (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.52–0.80) and comprehensive frailty (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.51–0.71). These relationships were similar to results in the spline model. Conclusions: This study shows an inverse dose–response relationship between diet quality and prevalence of both physical and comprehensive frailty in older adults.
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