For energy of Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (DRIs-J), the concept of Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) is applied. The EER has been established as an index for individuals and groups. The definition of EER for individuals is "habitual energy intake in a day which is predicted to have the highest probability that energy balance (energy intake2energy expenditure, in adults) becomes zero in an individual of a given age, gender, height, body weight, and level of physical activity in good health." In contrast, the definition of EER for a group is "habitual energy intake in a day which is predicted to have the highest probability that energy balance (energy intake2energy expenditure, in adults) becomes zero in a group." The EER is calculated as follows: EER (kcal/d)5basal metabolic rate (BMR) (kcal/d)3physical activity level (PAL). Representative values for BMR per kg body weight are determined based on a number of reports for Japanese. This is called the reference value of BMR (reference BMR). Total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water (DLW) method is utilized to determine PA L for each sex and age group. For adults, physical activity levels are determined based on data for Japanese adults. For children, energy deposition is added to the total energy expenditure. For pregnant and lactating women, additional values compared to EER before pregnancy for each stage of pregnancy and during lactation are calculated. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption is not added to calculate EER in addition to energy expenditure during physical activity.
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