Objectives In this paper, we aim to estimate the effect cancer diagnosis has on labour-force participation among middle-aged and older populations in Japan. We investigate the impact of cancer diagnosis on job cessation and the gap between gender or job types. Methods We sourced data from a nationwide, annual survey targeted population aged 51-70 featuring the same cohort throughout, and examined respondents' cancer diagnoses and whether they continued to work, while also considering differences between gender (observations: 53 373 for men and 44 027 for women) and occupation type (observations: 64 501 for cognitive worker and 20 921 for manual worker) in this regard. We also examined one-year lag effects, using propensity score matching to control for confounding characteristics. We also implement Logistic regression and derive the odds ratio to evaluate the relative risk of cancer diagnosis, which supplements the main result by propensity score matching. Results Overall, the diagnosis of cancer has a huge effect on labour-force participation among the population, but this effect varies across subpopulations. Male workers are more likely to quit their job in the year they are diagnosed with cancer (10.1 percentage points), and also in the following year (5.0 percentage points). Contrastingly, female workers are more likely to quit their job immediately after being diagnosed with cancer (18.6 percentage points); however, this effect totally disappears when considering likelihoods for the following year. Cognitive workers are more prone to quit their job in the year of diagnosis by 11.6 percentage points, and this effect remains significant, 3.8 percentage points, in the following year. On the other hand, for manual workers the effect during the year of diagnosis is huge. It amounts to 18.7 percentage points; however, the effect almost disappears in the following year. Conclusion Our results indicate the huge effect of cancer on job cessation, and that there might be a degree of discrimination in workplaces between gender and job types.
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