Significant advances in biophysical methods such as next-generation sequencing technologies have now opened the way to conduct evolutionary and applied research based on the genomic information of greatly diverse insects. Crickets belonging to Orthoptera (Insecta: Polyneoptera), one of the most flourishing groups of insects, have contributed to the development of multiple scientific fields including developmental biology and neuroscience and have been attractive targets in evolutionary ecology for their diverse ecological niches. In addition, crickets have recently gained recognition as food and feed. However, the genomic information underlying their biological basis and application research toward breeding is currently underrepresented. In this review, we summarize the progress of genomics of crickets. First, we outline the phylogenetic position of crickets in insects and then introduce recent studies on cricket genomics and transcriptomics in a variety of fields. Furthermore, we present findings from our analysis of polyneopteran genomes, with a particular focus on their large genome sizes, chromosome number, and repetitive sequences. Finally, how the cricket genome can be beneficial to the food industry is discussed. This review is expected to enhance greater recognition of how important the cricket genomes are to the multiple biological fields and how basic research based on cricket genome information can contribute to tackling global food security.
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