DNA methylation profile: A composer-, conductor-, and player- orchestrated mammalian genome consisting of genes and transposable genetic elements

Shintaro Yagi*, Mitsuko Hirosawa, Kunio Shiota

*この研究の対応する著者

研究成果: Review article査読

9 被引用数 (Scopus)

抄録

Epigenetic systems play crucial roles in the differentiation of a mammalian fertilized egg into hundreds of cell types exhibiting distinct phenotypes, using a set of DNA molecules comprising about 3 billion nucleotides. Genomewide analyses of epigenetic marks have revealed the remarkably well-established and well-maintained structure of the epigenome, consisting of DNA methylation and histone modifications that vary their state in a tissue type- and developmental stage-specific manner at numerous genomic loci. DNA methylation profiles comprising numerous tissuedependent and differentially methylated regions (T-DMRs), found at such loci, are unique to every type of cell and tissue, and illuminate molecular networks that represent their phenotypes. T-DMRs are located in not only genic but also nongenic regions-including transposable genetic elements, such as short interspersed transposable element. Epigenetic studies indicate that the molecules that perform these modifications directly, such as DNA methyltransferases and eukaryotic histone methyltransferases, or indirectly, such as CpG-binding protein and noncoding RNAs-and combinations of these-contribute to the DNA methylation profile. It remains to be addressed how these molecules precisely find their target genomic loci.

本文言語English
ページ(範囲)265-273
ページ数9
ジャーナルJournal of Reproduction and Development
58
3
DOI
出版ステータスPublished - 2012
外部発表はい

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 動物科学および動物学

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