It has been reported that 30% calorie restriction (CR) for 3 mo results in large increases in mitochondrial biogenesis in heart, brain, liver, and adipose tissue, with concomitant increases in respiration and ATP synthesis. We found these results surprising, and performed this study to determine whether 30% CR does induce an increase in mitochondria in heart, brain, liver, adipose tissue, and/or skeletal muscle. To this end, we measured the levels of a range of mitochondrial proteins, and mRNAs. With the exception of long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase protein level, which was increased ∼60% in adipose tissue, none of the mitochondrial proteins or mRNAs that we measured were increased in rats subjected to 30% CR for 14 wk. There was also no increase in citrate synthase activity. Because it is not possible to have an increase in mitochondria without any increase in key mitochondrial proteins, we conclude that 30% CR does not induce an increase in mitochondria in heart, brain, liver, adipose tissue, or skeletal muscle in laboratory rodents.
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